The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the Irish Backstop, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union. The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows. On 15 November 2018, the day after the agreement and the support of the British government were presented, several members of the government resigned, including Dominic Raab, Secretary of State for leaving the European Union.  As of 1 January 2021, the United Kingdom will no longer be part of the internal market or customs union. Even if an agreement on future relations is reached by the end of the year, the EU`s relationship with the UK will change radically and will be very different from those of the UNITED Kingdom, which was a member of the single market. Take, for example, the customs and tax formalities that will then be necessary. Like the EU Member States, citizens and businesses in Germany and the EU as a whole must adapt to these consequences of the end of the transition period, whether or not an agreement is reached on the future partnership with the UK. Boris Johnson signed the withdrawal agreement that will take the UK out of the EU on 31 January. The Prime Minister said his bill gave the British government the power to repeal parts of the withdrawal agreement because the EU could take “extreme and inappropriate lengths” in the treatment of the former British member. The Prime Minister will now send the agreement back to Brussels for ratification.
Von der Leyen said the EU would always respect the agreements that will be signed and that “we will never see that again.” The agreement covers issues such as money, citizens` rights, border agreements and dispute resolution. It also includes a transition period and an overview of the future relationship between the UK and the EU. It was published on 14 November 2018 and was the result of the Brexit negotiations. The agreement was approved by the heads of state and government of the other 27 EU countries and by the British government led by Prime Minister Theresa May, but it faced opposition from the British Parliament, which needed approval for ratification. The approval of the European Parliament would also have been necessary. On January 15, 2019, the House of Commons rejected the withdrawal agreement by 432 votes to 202.  The House of Commons again rejected the agreement by 391 votes to 242 on 12 March 2019 and rejected it a third time, on 29 March 2019, by 344 votes to 286. On 22 October 2019, the revised withdrawal agreement negotiated by Boris Johnson`s government approved the first phase in Parliament, but Johnson halted the legislative process when the accelerated approval programme failed to receive the necessary support and announced his intention to declare a general election.
 On 23 January 2020, Parliament ratified the agreement by adopting the withdrawal agreement; On 29 January 2020, the European Parliament approved the withdrawal agreement.