Nature protection, food security and the fight against poverty are among the objectives of the UNFCCC. The convention states that the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations should be achieved.” in sufficient time to enable ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable sustainable economic development. The UNFCCC was developed in response to the evolving understanding of human-induced changes in climate systems. Measurements made at Mauna Loa showed an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and new computer models of the global climate highlighted the increase in fossil fuel combustion as culprits. At the time of the 1992 Earth Summit, it was recognized around the world that the problems associated with burning fossil fuels required action. When IPCC scientists once again confirmed the threat of human-induced climate change, such as the burning of fossil fuels in the industrial and transport sectors, governments began negotiations in the early 1990s towards an international agreement on climate change. This led to the adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992, with the aim that developed countries (as developed in subsequent negotiations) would achieve by 2000 a stabilisation of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and broussin gas (N2O) at 1990 levels. Developing countries were exempted from emissions targets because they recognized that the bulk of historical and current global greenhouse gas emissions came from industrialized countries and that developing countries needed to achieve sustainable economic growth and eradicate poverty. For most States Parties, 1990 is the base year for the national GHG inventory and the calculation of the amount allocated.  However, five States Parties have an alternative base year: CDMs and MOCs are called “project-based mechanisms” because they generate emission reductions from projects. The difference between the EIT and project-based mechanisms is that the EIT is based on the definition of a quantitative limitation on emissions, while the CDM and JHA are based on the idea of `producing` emission reductions.
 The CDM aims to encourage the production of emission reductions in Contracting Parties other than Annex I, while JHA encourages the production of emission reductions in Annex I Contracting Parties. Third, Contracting Parties may establish sub-groups in accordance with Annex B and reallocate their targets, provided that they do not change the total emission ceiling of their originally allocated quantities and that such an agreement is notified to the UNFCCC Secretariat (Article 4). . . .